Castillo, Juan Carlos2; Humaidan, Peter4; Bernabéu, Rafael3
1 Department of Clinical Medicine - Fertilitetsklinikken, Skive, Department of Clinical Medicine, Health, Aarhus University2 Instituto Bernabeu, Avenida Albufereta 31, 03016 Alicante, Spain.3 Instituto Bernabeu, Avenida Albufereta 31, 03016 Alicante, Spain.4 Department of Clinical Medicine - Fertilitetsklinikken, Skive, Department of Clinical Medicine, Health, Aarhus University
Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, "natural" pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.