1 Section for Plant and Soil Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Department of Agriculture & Ecology, Plant and Soil Science, Department of Agriculture & Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 Department of Agriculture & Ecology, Plant and Soil Science, Department of Agriculture & Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet4 Section for Plant and Soil Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
a target for improvement of crop nitrogen use efficiency?
Overexpression of the cytosolic enzyme glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1) has been investigated in numerous cases with the goal of improving crop nitrogen use efficiency. However, the outcome has generally been inconsistent. Here, we review possible reasons underlying the lack of success and conclude that GS1 activity may be downregulated via a chain of processes elicited by metabolic imbalances and environmental constraints. We suggest that a pivotal role of GS1 may be related to the maintenance of essential nitrogen (N) flows and internal N sensing during critical stages of plant development. A number of more refined overexpression strategies exploiting gene stacking combined with tissue and cell specific targeting to overcome metabolic bottlenecks are considered along with their potential in relation to new N management strategies.
Trends in Plant Science, 2014, Vol 19, Issue 10, p. 656-663
Glutamine synthetase; Nitrogen; Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE); Overexpression; Regulation