1 Section 05 - Community Dentistry, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address: Jan.van.Dijken@odont.umu.se.3 Section 02 - Paediatric Dentistry, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet4 Section 02 - Paediatric Dentistry, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a flowable resin composite (SDR) bulk fill technique in posterior restorations and to compare it intraindividually with a conventional 2mm resin composite curing technique in a 3-year follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight pairs Class II and 15 pairs Class I restorations were placed in 38 patients with a mean age of 55.3 years (range 32-87). Each patient received at random at least two, as similar as possible, Class II or Class I restorations of two restorative techniques. In all cavities a single step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In one of the cavities of each pair, a flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with a nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated. RESULTS: After three years, 76 Class II and 28 Class I restorations could be observed. One molar resin composite-only tooth showed post-operative sensitivity during 3 weeks for temperature changes and occlusal forces. Two failed Class II molar restorations in the resin composite-only group were observed during the first year, one cusp fracture and one resin composite fracture. An annual failure rate of 1.3% was found for the resin composite only restorations and of 0% in the bulk-filled restorations (n.s.). Ten participants were estimated as having high caries risk and eleven showed active bruxing habits. SIGNIFICANCE: The 4mm bulk-fill technique with the flowable resin composite SDR showed highly clinical effectiveness, which was comparable during the 3-year follow-up with the 2mm resin composite layering technique.