Lier, Tore3; Do, Dung Trung4; Johansen, Maria Vang5; Nguyen, Thi Hop4; Dalsgaard, Anders6; Asfeldt, Anne Mette3
1 Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Food Safety and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 University Hospital of North Norway4 National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology5 Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet6 Food Safety and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization aims for complete morbidity control of fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) in endemic areas by 2020. The main intervention tool for achieving this goal is regular use of preventive chemotherapy by offering praziquantel to those at risk in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of preventive chemotherapy to control FZT in an endemic area in Northern Vietnam. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We followed a cohort of 396 people who fulfilled the criteria for receiving preventive chemotherapy. Stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz technique for the presence of trematode eggs before, and two, 16, 29 and 60 weeks after preventive chemotherapy. The prevalence of trematode eggs in stool was 40.2% before, 2.3% two weeks after and increased to a cumulative prevalence of 29.8% sixty weeks after preventive chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of preventive chemotherapy as a main component in control of FZT is not well documented in most endemic areas. We found a high reinfection rate within the first year after preventive chemotherapy. Since these trematodes are zoonoses, preventive chemotherapy may not have sufficient impact alone on the transmission to have a lasting effect on the prevalence. Animal reservoirs and farm management practices must be targeted to achieve sustainable control of fishborne zoonotic trematode infections, hence control programs should consider a One Health approach.
P L O S Neglected Tropical Diseases (online), 2014, Vol 8, Issue 6