1 Department of Animal Science - Molecular nutrition and reproduction, Department of Animal Science, Science and Technology, Aarhus University2 Department of Animal Science - Animal nutrition and physiology, Department of Animal Science, Science and Technology, Aarhus University3 Department of Food Science - Differentiated & Biofunctional Foods, Department of Food Science, Science and Technology, Aarhus University4 unknown5 Department of Animal Science - Molecular nutrition and reproduction, Department of Animal Science, Science and Technology, Aarhus University6 Department of Animal Science - Animal nutrition and physiology, Department of Animal Science, Science and Technology, Aarhus University
Mobilization and deposition in cows are different strategies of metabolism; hence, the aim was to study the possibility of reducing the crude protein (CP) supply during deposition to limit the use of protein supplements and minimize the environmental impact. A total of 61 Jersey and 107 Holstein cows were assigned to 4 mixed rations in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 concentrate to forage ratios (CFR) and 2 CP levels: high CFR (40:60) and recommended CP [16% of dry matter (DM); HCFR-RP], high CFR (40:60) and low CP (14% of DM; HCFR-LP), low CFR (30:70) and recommended CP (16% of DM; LCFR-RP), and low CFR (30:70) and low CP (14% of DM; LCFR-LP), where RP met the Danish recommendations. Cows were fed concentrate in an automatic milking unit. After calving, cows were fed HCFR-RP until entering deposition, defined as 11 kg (Jersey) or 15 kg (Holstein) of weight gain from the lowest weight after calving. Subsequently, cows either remained on HCFR-RP or changed to one of the other mixed rations. Comparing strategies during wk 9 to 30 of lactation showed higher dry matter intake (DMI) of mixed ration on HCFR compared with LCFR and on RP compared with LP. The DMI of the concentrate was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and higher on LP than on RP, resulting in overall higher DMI on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. Crude protein intakes were higher on RP than on LP and starch intakes were higher on HCFR than on LCFR. Intakes of neutral detergent fiber tended to be higher on LCFR than on HCFR. Intakes of net energy for lactation were affected by CFR and CP level, with a higher intake on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. No interactions were found between CFR and CP level for any feed intake variables. Yields of milk and energy-corrected milk were higher on RP than on LP, with no difference in yield persistency after the ration change. Milk composition did not differ among strategies but the protein to fat ratio was higher on HCFR than on LCFR and tended to be lower on RP than on LP. Differences in fatty acid composition were small, and de novo synthesis was high (>60%). Energy efficiency was higher on LCFR than on HCFR and no interaction with breed or parity was found. The N efficiency was higher on LP than RP, but with an interaction with breed due to lower N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein cows on HCFR-RP but higher N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein on LCFR-LP. In dairy production, concentrate in the mixed ration can be substituted with high-quality forage during deposition without negative effects on milk yield and composition when a sufficient CP level is ensured.
Journal of Dairy Science, 2014, Vol 97, Issue 7, p. 4433-4443
forage ratio; protein level; dairy cow; environment