Anderson, Joseph P.2; González-Gaitán, Santiago2; Hamuy, Mario2; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.2; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.13; Olivares E., Felipe3; Phillips, Mark M.4; Schulze, Steve5; Antezana, Roberto2; Bolt, Luis6; Campillay, Abdo4; Castellón, Sergio4; Contreras, Carlos13; De Jaeger, Thomas2; Folatelli, Gastón7; Förster, Francisco2; Freedman, Wendy L.8; González, Luis2; Hsiao, Eric4; Krzemiński, Wojtek9; Krisciunas, Kevin10; Maza, José2; McCarthy, Patrick8; Morrell, Nidia I.4; Persson, Sven E.8; Roth, Miguel4; Salgado, Francisco11; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.12; Thomas-Osip, Joanna4
1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science and Technology, Aarhus University2 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago3 Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago, Chile4 Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, La Serena, Chile5 Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago6 Argelander Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany7 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583, Japan8 Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science9 N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716, Warszawa, Poland10 George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas AandM University11 1 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University12 George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas AandM University13 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science and Technology, Aarhus University
We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitudes measured at maximum light correlate more strongly with decline rates than those measured at other epochs: brighter supernovae at maximum generally have faster declining light-curves at all epochs. We find a relation between the decline rate during the "plateau" phase and peak magnitudes, which has a dispersion of 0.56 mag, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the "plateau" stage, through to the brightest events which decline much faster. A large range in optically thick phase durations is observed, implying a range in progenitor envelope masses at the epoch of explosion. During the radioactive tails, we find many supernovae with faster declining light-curves than expected from full trapping of radioactive emission, implying low mass ejecta. It is suggested that the main driver of light-curve diversity is the extent of hydrogen envelopes retained before explosion. Finally, a new classification scheme is introduced where hydrogen-rich events are typed as simply "SN II" with an "s 2" value giving the decline rate during the "plateau" phase, indicating its morphological type.