Lupindu, Athumani M3; Olsen, John Elmerdahl7; Ngowi, Helena A3; Msoffe, Peter L. M.4; Mtambo, Madundo M.5; Scheutz, Flemming6; Dalsgaard, Anders8
1 Veterinary Clinical Microbiology, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Food Safety and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 Sokoine University of Agriculture4 University of Dodoma5 Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology6 Statens Serum Institut7 Veterinary Clinical Microbiology, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet8 Food Safety and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
Escherichia coli strains such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic, attaching, and effacing E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli cause diarrhea in humans. Although other serotypes exist, the most commonly reported STEC in outbreaks is O157:H7. A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and characterize non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7 from urban and periurban livestock settings of Morogoro, Tanzania. Human stool, cattle feces, and soil and water samples were collected. Observations and questionnaire interview studies were used to gather information about cattle and manure management practices in the study area. E. coli were isolated on sorbitol MacConkey agar and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. Out of 1049 samples, 143 (13.7%) yielded NSF E. coli. Serological and antimicrobial tests and molecular typing were performed to NSF E. coli isolates. These procedures detected 10 (7%) pathogenic E. coli including STEC (n=7), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n=2), and attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) (n=1) strains. The STEC strains had the ability to produce VT1 and different VT2 toxin subtypes that caused cytopathic effects on Vero cells. The prevalence of STEC in cattle was 1.6%, out of which 0.9% was serotype O157:H7 and the overall prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in cattle was 2.2%. The serotypes O157:H7, O142:H34, O113:H21, O+:H-, O+:H16, and O25:H4 were identified. One ESBL-producing isolate showed the MLST type ST131. To our knowledge, this is the first finding in Tanzania of this recently emerged worldwide pandemic clonal group, causing widespread antimicrobial-resistant infections, and adds knowledge of the geographical distribution of ST131. Cattle manure was indiscriminately deposited within residential areas, and there was direct contact between humans and cattle feces during manure handling. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, animals, and the environment to pathogenic E. coli and other manure-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is a need to improve manure management practices in urban and periurban areas to prevent pathogen spread and associated human health risks.
Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 2014, Vol 14, Issue 7, p. 503-510