Dhurandhar, Emily J3; Dawson, John4; Alcorn, Amy4; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup10; Thomas, Elizabeth A5; Cardel, Michelle6; Bourland, Ashley C7; Astrup, Arne11; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre8; Hill, James O6; Apovian, Caroline M7; Shikany, James M9; Allison, David B4
1 Obesity Research, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet3 Department of Health Behavior, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL4 Office of Energetics, Nutrition Obesity Research Center, Department of Nutrition Sciences, School of Public Health and School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL5 Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO6 Department of Pediatrics, Anshutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO7 Nutrition and Weight Management Center, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA8 New York Obesity Research Center, Columbia University, New York, NY9 Division of Preventative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL10 Obesity Research, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet11 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND: Breakfast is associated with lower body weight in observational studies. Public health authorities commonly recommend breakfast consumption to reduce obesity, but the effectiveness of adopting these recommendations for reducing body weight is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We tested the relative effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40] aged 20-65 y. Our primary outcome was weight change. We compared weight change in a control group with weight loss in experimental groups told to eat breakfast or to skip breakfast [no breakfast (NB)]. Randomization was stratified by prerandomization breakfast eating habits. A total of 309 participants were randomly assigned.RESULTS: A total of 283 of the 309 participants who were randomly assigned completed the intervention. Treatment assignment did not have a significant effect on weight loss, and there was no interaction between initial breakfast eating status and treatment. Among skippers, mean (±SD) baseline weight-, age-, sex-, site-, and race-adjusted weight changes were -0.71 ± 1.16, -0.76 ± 1.26, and -0.61 ± 1.18 kg for the control, breakfast, and NB groups, respectively. Among breakfast consumers, mean (±SD) baseline weight-, age-, sex-, site-, and race-adjusted weight changes were -0.53 ± 1.16, -0.59 ± 1.06, and -0.71 ± 1.17 kg for the control, breakfast, and NB groups, respectively. Self-reported compliance with the recommendation was 93.6% for the breakfast group and 92.4% for the NB group.Conclusions: A recommendation to eat or skip breakfast for weight loss was effective at changing self-reported breakfast eating habits, but contrary to widely espoused views this had no discernable effect on weight loss in free-living adults who were attempting to lose weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrails.gov as NCT01781780.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014, Vol 100, Issue 2, p. 507-513