1 Research Centre for Prevention and Health, FCFS, The Capital Region of Denmark2 Hjerteafdeling Y, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark3 University of Lausanne4 University Hospital Basel5 Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.6 University College of London7 Department of Epidemiology, UMR 1027- INSERM, Toulouse University-CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France.8 University Hospital of Gent9 Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo NEUROMED, Pozzilli (IS), Italy.10 Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology Research Group (ULEC-EGEC), Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Disease Programme (RICAD), IMIM, Barcelona, Spain.11 University of Bergen12 Laboratory of Internal Medicine, Institute of Internal Medicine, Siberian Branch RAMS, Novosibirsk, Russia.13 Queens University of Belfast14 Unit of Epidemiology of Cerebro and Cardiovascular Diseases, National Centre of Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.15 Research Unit and Docent Unit of Family Medicine Girona, Primary Care Research Institute Jordi Gol, Girona, Spain Departament of Medicine, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.16 University of New South Wales, St Vincent's Hospital17 Centro di Prevenzione Cardiovascolare, ASS 4 'Medio Friuli', Udine, Italy.18 Geneva University Hospital19 Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Victoria, Australia.20 Centre for Health Monitoring, National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic.21 Novosibirsk State University22 School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.23 Departament of Medicine, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.24 Institute of Cardiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference; systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure; total, high (HDL) and low (LDL) density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides and glucose levels. Within each study, all data were adjusted for age, gender and current smoking. For blood pressure, lipids and glucose levels, further adjustments on BMI and drug treatment were performed. RESULTS: In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, CVRFs levels tended to be higher in winter and lower in summer months. These patterns were observed for most studies. In the Northern Hemisphere, the estimated seasonal variations were 0.26 kg/m(2) for BMI, 0.6 cm for waist circumference, 2.9 mm Hg for SBP, 1.4 mm Hg for DBP, 0.02 mmol/L for triglycerides, 0.10 mmol/L for total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/L for HDL cholesterol, 0.11 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 0.07 mmol/L for glycaemia. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to studies collecting fasting blood samples. Similar seasonal variations were found for most CVRFs in the Southern Hemisphere, with the exception of waist circumference, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: CVRFs show a seasonal pattern characterised by higher levels in winter, and lower levels in summer. This pattern could contribute to the seasonality of CV mortality.
Heart (british Cardiac Society), 2014
Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't