For the majority of forest reserves in Tanzania, biodiversity is poorly documented. This study was conducted to assess species richness (woody species), diversity, and forest structure and to examine relationships between species occurrence and topographic and edaphic factors in the Gangalamtumba Village Land Forest Reserve, a dry Miombo woodland area in Tanzania. A total of 35 nested circular plots with radii of 5, 15, and 20 m were used to collect data on woody species and soil samples across the 6,065 ha community-managed forest reserve. Stumps were measured 20 cm above ground. A total of 88 species belonging to 29 families were identified. Generally forest structure parameters and diversity indices indicated the forest to be in a good condition and have high species richness and diversity. Vegetation analysis revealed four communities of which two were dominated by the family Caesalpiniaceae, indicating large variation of site conditions and possible disturbances in the study area. The high level of diversity of woody species and the high basal area and volume indicate that the forest is in good condition, but the effect of anthropogenic activities is evident and stresses the need for proper management to maintain or enhance the present species diversity.