1 Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark2 Ceramic Engineering & Science, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark3 Mixed Conductors, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark
Viscoelastic properties and sintering mechanisms of tape-casted gadolinium-doped ceria (CGO), yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and scandium–yttriumstabilized zirconia (ScYSZ) are characterized in order to investigate the reciprocal thermo-mechanical compatibility when arranged as a self-standing bi-layered electrolyte system. The combined use of thermo-mechanical analysis, optical dilatometry, and scanning electron microscopy ensures a systematic characterization of both the individual layers and CGO/YSZ and CGO/ScYSZ bi-layered laminates. The results of the co-firing process of the bi-layers are critical due to the mismatch of thermo-mechanical and sintering properties among the materials. Despite the better sinteractivity of ScYSZ, the self-standing CGO/ScYSZ bilayer presents more challenges in terms of densification compared with the CGO/YSZ bi-layer. In particular, above 1200 C, ScYSZ and CGO show residual porosity, and at higher sintering temperatures, above 1300 C, full densification is completely inhibited by constrained sintering phenomena.