1 Section of Forensic Genetics, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 RI ledelse, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 Department of Forensic Genetics, Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.4 Department of Statistical Genetics and Bioinformatics, Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne, Germany.5 Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto6 Philippine National Police Crime Laboratory, Quezon City, Philippines.7 Ludwig Maximilians Universität8 The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.9 Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Spain.10 GenoID Forensic DNA Laboratory, Department of Genetics, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.11 Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universität Basel, Switzerland.12 Department of Forensic and Analytical Science, King's College London, London, UK.13 Forensic Sciences Department, Poder Judicial, Heredia, Costa Rica.14 Landeskriminalamt Baden-Württemberg, Germany.15 Institute of Legal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.16 Institute of Legal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria; Penn State Eberly College of Science, University Park, PA, USA.17 Institute of Applied Genetics and Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Ft. Worth, USA.18 Institute of Applied Genetics and Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Ft. Worth, USA; Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.19 Forensische Genetik, Kantonsspital Aarau AG, Switzerland.20 Laboratorio de Diagnósticos por DNA, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.21 Human DNA Diagnostics Laboratory, Beirut, Lebanon.22 National Institute of Standards and Technology23 Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Servicio de Huellas Digitales Genetica and CONICET (National Scientific and Technical Research Council), Buenos Aires, Argentina.24 University of the Western Cape, Biotechnology Department, Forensic DNA Laboratory, Cape Town, South Africa.25 KU Leuven, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Laboratory of Forensic Genetics and Molecular Archaeology, Leuven, Belgium.26 Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.27 Collaborative Innovation Center of Judicial Civilization, Institute of Evidence Law and Forensic Science, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing, China.28 Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.29 Illinois State Police, Research & Development Laboratory, Springfield, USA.30 Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminology, University of Zagreb, Croatia.31 University Center of Legal Medicine, Lausanne-Geneva, Lausanne, Switzerland.32 Forensic Science Centre "Ivan Vucetic", General Police Directorate, Ministry of Interior, Zagreb, Croatia.33 Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universität Zürich, Switzerland.34 National Forensic Laboratory, Ljubljana, Slovenia.35 Department of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Japan.36 Institute of Forensic Medicine, West China School of Basic Science and Forensic Medicine Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.37 Molecular Biology and Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.38 Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universität Halle, Germany.39 Institute for Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics, Medical Faculty, University "Ss. Cyril and Methodius", Skopje, Macedonia.40 Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Germany.41 Forensic Laboratory for DNA Research, Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.42 Subdivision of Biological and Biochemical Examinations and Analyses F.S.D. - Hellenic Police, Athens, Greece.43 Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.44 Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universität Rostock, Germany.45 Molecular Biology Laboratory, American University of Science and Technology Beirut, Lebanon and School of Criminal Justice, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.46 Laboratorio de Análisis de ADN, FCM - National University of Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina.47 Instituto Nacional de Toxicología y Ciencias Forenses, Madrid, Spain.48 Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal.49 National Research Institute of Police Science, Chiba, Japan.50 Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and DIMAV/INMETRO, Brazil.51 Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.52 Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.53 Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universität Leipzig, Germany.54 School of Forensic Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.55 Department of Criminal Investigation, Xuanwei Public Security Bureau, Xuanwei, China.56 Department of Criminal Investigation, Yunnan Provincial Public Security Bureau, Kunming, China.57 Universidad del Páis Vasco58 Section of Legal Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.59 DNA Laboratory, Institute for Forensic Medicine, Network of Forensic Science Institutes, Ministry of Public Administration and Justice, Budapest, Hungary.60 Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland.61 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Institute of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy.62 Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.63 Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University Poznan, Poland.64 Unidade de Xenética Forense, Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Grupo de Medicina Xenómica, Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.65 Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.66 Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Legal Medicine, University of Bari, Italy.67 Department of Medical Genetics, Warsaw Medical University, Poland.68 Department of Forensic Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Poland.69 Department of Public Health Sciences and Pediatrics, University of Turin, Italy.70 Institute of Applied Genetics and Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Ft. Worth, USA; Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.71 Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki72 DNA Analysis Laboratory, Natural Sciences Research Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines.73 Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Germany.74 University of Turku75 Institute of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany.76 Department of Forensic Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.77 Athens Dept. of Legal Medicine, DNA Analysis Laboratory, Athens, Greece.78 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.79 Laboratorio Genetix S.A., Panamá, Panama.80 Laboratory of Forensic Genetics, Institute of Criminalistics, Prague, Czech Republic.81 Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.82 Sezione di Medicina Legale, Dipartimento di Medicina e Sanità Pubblica, Università degli Studi di Verona, Italy.83 Istituto di Medicina Legale, Universitá degli Studi di Brescia, Italy.84 Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, UK.85 Genomic Engenharia Molecular Ltda., Sao Paulo, Brazil.86 Institute of Forensic Research, Krakow, Poland.87 Defence Medical & Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories, Singapore.88 Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Germany.89 National Institute of Standards and Technology90 Section of Forensic Genetics, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet91 RI ledelse, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet92 University of Turku
In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent.
Forensic Science International. Genetics, 2014, Vol 12, p. 12-23