Power systems have been experiencing huge changes mainly due to the substantial increase of distributed generation (DG) and the operation in competitive environments. Virtual Power Players (VPP) can aggregate several players, namely a diversity of energy resources, including distributed generation (DG) based on several technologies, electric storage systems (ESS) and demand response (DR). Energy resources management gains an increasing relevance in this competitive context. This makes the DR use more interesting and flexible, giving place to a wide range of new opportunities. This paper proposes a methodology to support VPPs in the DR programs’ management, considering all the existing energy resources (generation and storage units) and the distribution network. The proposed method is based on locational marginal prices (LMP) values. The evaluation of the impact of using DR specific programs in the LMP values supports the manager decision concerning the DR use. The proposed method has been computationally implemented and its application is illustrated in this paper using a 33-bus network with intensive use of DG.
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2014
Demand response; Distributed generation; Load curtailment; Locational marginal price; Virtual power player