Aims Modulation of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity affects insulin secretion in both rodents and isolated pancreatic beta-cells. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DRD2/ANKK1 locus may affect susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes in humans. Methods Four potentially functional variants in the coding region of the DRD2/ANKK1 locus (rs1079597, rs6275, rs6277, rs1800497) were genotyped and analysed for Type 2 diabetes susceptibility in up to 25 000 people (8148 with Type 2 diabetes and 17687 control subjects) from two large independent Dutch cohorts and one Danish cohort. In addition, 340 Dutch subjects underwent a 2-h hyperglycaemic clamp to investigate insulin secretion. Since sexual dimorphic associations related to DRD2 polymorphisms have been previously reported, we also performed a gender-stratified analysis. Results rs1800497 at the DRD2/ANKK1 locus was associated with a significantly increased risk for Type 2 diabetes in women (odds ratio 1.14 (1.06-1.23); P = 4.1*10(-4)) but not in men (odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.93-1.07); P = 0.92) or the combined group. Although rs1800497 was not associated with insulin secretion, we did find another single nucleotide polymorphism in this locus, rs6275, to be associated with increased first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in women (P = 5.5*10(-4)) but again not in men (P = 0.34). Conclusion The present data identify DRD2/ANKK1 as a potential sex-specific Type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene.
Diabetic Medicine, 2014, Vol 31, Issue 8, p. 1001-1008