1 Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark2 Center for Process Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark3 Lund University4 Uppsala University5 University of Girona6 Grundfos A/S7 Pusan National University8 inCTRL Solutions Inc.9 Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark10 Dynamita11 Instituto de Ingeniería12 University of Queensland13 Swedish Environmental Research Institute14 Lund University15 University of Girona16 Pusan National University17 University of Queensland
Key developments of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) applications in wastewater systems during the past 40 years are highlighted in this paper. From the first ICA conference in 1973 through to today there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the processes, instrumentation, computer systems and control theory. However, many developments have not been addressed here, such as sewer control, drinking water treatment and water distribution control. It is hoped that this review can stimulate new attempts to more effectively apply control and automation in water systems in the coming years.
Water Science and Technology, 2014, Vol 69, Issue 7, p. 1373-1385
Modelling; Monitoring; Sensors; Simulation; Wastewater; Water