only up-regulation of Wnt inhibitors SFRP3 and DKK1 is associated with lytic bone disease
Multiple myeloma (MM) lytic bone disease (LBD) is caused by osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. RANK/RANKL/OPG play central roles in osteoclast activation and Wnt inhibitor DKK1 in osteoblast inhibition. The role of other Wnt inhibitors is less clear. We evaluated gene expression of osteoclast regulators (RANK, RANKL, OPG, TRAIL, MIP1A), Wnt inhibitors (DKK1, SFRP2, SFRP3, sclerostin, WIF1) and osteoblast transcription factors (RUNX2, osterix) by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment using snap-frozen BM biopsies, thereby achieving minimal post-sampling manipulation, and gene expression profiling (GEP) data, reflecting the in vivo situation. We analyzed 110 biopsies from newly diagnosed patients with MM and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and healthy volunteers. LBD was evaluated using standard radiographs and the bone resorption marker CTX-1. Protein levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. Among Wnt inhibitors, only SFRP3 and DKK1 were significantly overexpressed in advanced LBD, correlating with protein levels. SFRP3 correlated with CTX-1. Our findings support osteoblast inhibition as the driving force behind MM LBD.
Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2014, Vol 55, Issue 4, p. 911-919