Zheng, Hong2; Yde, Christian C2; Arnberg, Karina4; Mølgaard, Christian5; Michaelsen, Kim F.5; Larnkjær, Anni5; Bertram, Hanne C2
1 Paediatric and International Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Aarslev3 Paediatric Nutrition and International Nutrition, Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet4 Paediatric Nutrition and International Nutrition, Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet5 Paediatric and International Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
an elucidation of the effects of inter-/intraindividual differences, gender, and pubertal development
The plasma and urine metabolome of 192 overweight 12-15-year-old adolescents (BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) were examined in order to elucidate gender, pubertal development measured as Tanner stage, physical activity measured as number of steps taken daily, and intra-/interindividual differences affecting the metabolome detected by proton NMR spectroscopy. Higher urinary excretion of citrate, creatinine, hippurate, and phenylacetylglutamine and higher plasma level of phosphatidylcholine and unsaturated lipid were found for girls compared with boys. The results suggest that gender differences in the metabolome are being commenced already in childhood. The relationship between Tanner stage and the metabolome showed that pubertal development stage was positively related to urinary creatinine excretion and negatively related to urinary citrate content. No relations between physical activity and the metabolome could be identified. The present study for the first time provides comprehensive information about associations between the metabolome and gender, pubertal development, and physical activity in overweight adolescents, which is an important subject group to approach in the prevention of obesity and life-style related diseases. While this study is preliminary, these results may have the potential to translate into clinical applicability upon further investigations; if biomarkers for Tanner stage can be established, these might be used for identification of individuals susceptible to an early pubertal development.