Graudal, Niels2; Jürgens, Gesche3; Baslund, Bo3; Alderman, Michael H2
1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual sodium: 115-165 mmol; high usual sodium: 166-215 mmol), and high sodium (>215 mmol). METHODS: The relationship between individual measures of dietary sodium intake vs. outcome in cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) measured as hazard ratios (HRs) were integrated in meta-analyses. RESULTS: No RCTs in healthy population samples were identified. Data from 23 cohort studies and 2 follow-up studies of RCTs (n = 274,683) showed that the risks of ACM and CVDEs were decreased in usual sodium vs. low sodium intake (ACM: HR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.99; CVDEs: HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82-0.99) and increased in high sodium vs. usual sodium intake (ACM: HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30; CVDEs: HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02-1.24). In population representative samples adjusted for multiple confounders, the HR for ACM was consistently decreased in usual sodium vs. low sodium intake (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.81-0.92), but not increased in high sodium vs. usual sodium intake (HR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.91-1.18). Within the usual sodium intake range, the number of events was stable (high usual sodium vs. low usual sodium: HR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.92-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: Both low sodium intakes and high sodium intakes are associated with increased mortality, consistent with a U-shaped association between sodium intake and health outcomes.
Journal review article
American Journal of Hypertension, 2014, Vol 27, Issue 9, p. 1129-1137