Abstract The impact of the quality and quantity of carbohydrate intake on glycaemic control and pregnancy outcome was evaluated with focus on pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. For women with type 1 diabetes, a gestational weight gain within the lower range of the guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general, carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes. A moderately low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40% of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic pregnancy. In type 1 diabetes pregnancy, a moderately low carbohydrate diet with 40% carbohydrates has been suggested; however, a minimum intake of 175 g carbohydrate daily is recommended. Despite limited evidence the combination of a low-glycaemic index diet with a moderately low carbohydrate intake, using carbohydrate counting can be recommended for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.
Journal review article
Journal of Maternal - Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 2015, Vol 28, Issue 2, p. 229-233