1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
AIMS: Carrying the D-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism and high ACE activity are prognostic factors in diabetic nephropathy, which predicts mortality in type 1 diabetes. We studied the association between the ACE D-allele and ACE phenotype and long-term all-cause mortality in three single-institution outpatient cohorts. METHODS: Genotype-based analyses were performed in 269 patients from Hillerød Hospital (HIH) (follow-up: 12 years) and in 439 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 437 patients with persistent normoalbuminuria from the Steno Diabetes Center (SDC) (follow-up: 9.5 years). Patients not on renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-blocking treatment were included in analyses of serum ACE activity (HIH: n = 208) and plasma ACE concentration (SDC: n=269). RESULTS: In the HIH cohort, carrying a D-allele was associated with excess mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-16)), but not in the SDC cohorts. At HIH, serum ACE activity was associated with excess mortality (HR=1.04 (95% CI 1.0-1.1 per unit increase)), but in the SDC cohort plasma ACE concentration was not. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients with type 1 diabetes, carrying the ACE D-allele and high spontaneous serum ACE activity were associated with 12-year excess mortality. These findings could not be reproduced in two other cohorts with persistent normoalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy.
Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System, 2015, Vol 16, Issue 2, p. 374-81
Adult; Cohort Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; INDEL Mutation; Male; Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A; Phenotype; Proportional Hazards Models; Renin-Angiotensin System