BACKGROUND: HIV patients have increased risk of impaired renal function. We aimed to estimate the incidence of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT) and start of chronic renal replacement therapy (cRRT) among HIV patients compared with population controls. METHODS: In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we analysed incidence rates (IR), incidence rate ratios (IRR) and risk factors for aRRT and cRRT among HIV patients compared with an age- and gender-matched population control cohort using Poisson regression. RESULTS: We identified 5300 HIV patients and 53 000 population controls. The IRs per 10 000 person-years of aRRT and cRRT among HIV patients were 15.9 (95% CI: 12.5-20.1) and 4.4 (95% CI: 2.8-6.9), respectively. The IRR was 4.7 (95% CI: 3.5-6.2) for aRRT and 3.6 (95% CI: 2.2-6.0) for cRRT compared with population controls. Risk of aRRT was increased during the first year after HIV diagnosis [IRR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.5-8.1)], after a diagnosis of AIDS [IRR 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-3.9)], in intravenous drug users [IRR 6.0 (95% CI: 2.9-12.2)] and in patients with hypertension [IRR 7.0 (95% CI: 3.7-13.2)]. Factors associated with increased risk of cRRT were hypertension [IRR 20 (95% CI: 6.8-61)] and baseline eGFR < 60 mL/min pr. 1.73 m(2) [IRR 7.8 (95% CI: 1.2-50)]. Exposure to tenofovir and/or atazanavir was not associated with risk of aRRT or cRRT. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of aRRT is increased more than 4-fold and the risk of cRRT is increased more than 3-fold in HIV patients in Denmark compared with the background population. We found no association between exposure to tenofovir, atazanavir or the combination of the two and risk of aRRT or cRRT.
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 2014, Vol 29, Issue 6, p. 1232-1238