1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
a randomized study with individual patient analysis
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with varying degrees of pain. A considerable proportion (25-40%) of patients experience severe pain, despite a comprehensive multimodal analgesic regimen. We hypothesized that adductor canal block (ACB) would reduce pain in this patient category compared with placebo. METHODS: Fifty patients with severe pain, defined as having a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score of >60 during active flexion of the knee on the first or the second postoperative day after TKA, were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All the patients had received a comprehensive multimodal analgesic regimen. Group A received an ACB with ropivacaine 0.75%, 30 ml at time 0 and isotonic saline after 45 min. Group B received an ACB with isotonic saline at time 0 and ropivacaine 0.75%, 30 ml after 45 min. RESULTS: A 32-mm difference in VAS pain score, during active flexion of the knee (primary endpoint), was observed in favour of Group A, 95% confidence interval (CI): 23-42, P<0.0001. At rest, the difference in VAS pain score was 15 mm in favour of Group A, 95% CI: 8-23 mm, P=0.0001. Individual patient analysis revealed that 25% of the patients had no effect during active flexion. At rest, however, only 8% had more than mild pain after ACB compared with 57% at inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: ACB reduced VAS with 32 mm, during active flexion of the knee, in patients with severe pain after TKA, but a large proportion (78%) still had at least moderate, movement-related pain. Clinical trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01549704.
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2014, Vol 112, Issue 5, p. 912-919
Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Amides; Anesthetics, Local; Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee; Double-Blind Method; Female; Humans; Knee Joint; Male; Middle Aged; Nerve Block; Pain Measurement; Pain, Postoperative; Range of Motion, Articular; Severity of Illness Index; Sodium Chloride