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1 Department of Bioscience - Aquatic Biology, Department of Bioscience, Science and Technology, Aarhus University 2 unknown 3 Department of Bioscience, Science and Technology, Aarhus University 4 Department of Bioscience - Aquatic Biology, Department of Bioscience, Science and Technology, Aarhus University 5 Department of Bioscience, Science and Technology, Aarhus University
Pharmaceuticals are commonly found both in the aquatic and the agricultural environments as a consequence of the human activities and associated discharge of wastewater effluents to the environment. The utilization of treated effluent for crop irrigation, along with land application of manure and biosolids, accelerates the introduction of these compounds into arable lands and crops. Despite the low concentrations of pharmaceuticals usually found, the continuous introduction into the environment from different pathways makes them 'pseudo-persistent'. Several reviews have been published regarding the potential impact of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals on arable land. However, plant uptake as well as phytotoxicity data are scarcely studied. Simultaneously, phytoremediation as a tool for pharmaceutical removal from soils, sediments and water is starting to be researched, with promising results. This review gives an in-depth overview of the phytotoxicity of pharmaceuticals, their uptake and their removal by plants. The aim of the current work was to map the present knowledge concerning pharmaceutical interactions with plants in terms of uptake and the use of plant-based systems for phytoremediation purposes. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2014, Vol 21, p. 11729-11763
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