1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
BACKGROUND: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and death. We aimed to identify the prognostic value of 25(OH)D for AIDS, non-AIDS-defining events and death, and its association with immunological/inflammatory markers. METHODS: Prospective 1-1 case-control study nested within the EuroSIDA cohort. Matched cases and controls for AIDS (n = 50 matched pairs), non-AIDS-defining (n = 63) events and death (n = 41), with plasma samples during follow-up were selected. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between 25(OH)D levels and annual 25(OH)D change and the probability of events. Mixed models investigated relationships between 25(OH)D levels and immunological/inflammatory markers. RESULTS: In sum, 250 patients were included. Median time between first and last sample and last sample and event was 44.6(interquartile range [IQR]: 22.7-72.3) and 3.1(IQR: 1.4-6.4) months. Odds of death decreased by 46.0%(95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-70.0, P = .04) for a 2-fold increase in latest 25(OH)D level. There was no association between 25(OH)D and the occurrence of AIDS or non-AIDS-defining events (P > .05). In patients with current 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL, hsIL-6 concentration increased by 4.7%(95% CI, .2,9.4, P = .04) annually after adjustment for immunological/inflammatory markers, and no change in hsCRP rate was observed (P = .76). CONCLUSIONS: Low Vitamin D predicts short term mortality in HIV-positive persons. Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation and patient outcomes should be investigated.
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2014, Vol 210, Issue 2, p. 234-43