This study investigates the role of inflammation in intrauterine growth retardation by exploring the levels of inflammatory markers in umbilical cord blood from neonates who were born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and comparing them to neonates who were born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by standard methods in term or near-term (gestational age >36 weeks) neonates born SGA (n = 45) and a matched group of neonates born AGA (n = 45). Infants exposed to maternal chronic diseases, diabetes or pre-eclampsia were excluded. SGA was defined as two standard derivations below the expected for term and gender. In multivariate regression analyses significant elevation in cord blood concentration of IL-6 was demonstrated in the SGA group (mean 4.56 vs. 2.38, p = 0.002). The results indicate the presence of elevated inflammatory markers in the cord blood from SGA infants compared to AGA infants, and consequently the results suggest an inflammatory component in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).
Fetal and Pediatric Pathology (print Edition), 2014, Vol 33, Issue 2, p. 114-118
Adult; Biological Markers; C-Reactive Protein; Case-Control Studies; Female; Fetal Blood; Fetal Growth Retardation; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Infant, Small for Gestational Age; Inflammation; Inflammation Mediators; Interleukin-6; Male; Pregnancy; Reference Values; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Young Adult; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't