Rasmussen, Morten7; Anzick, Sarah L.8; Waters, Michael R9; Skoglund, Pontus10; DeGiorgio, Michael11; Stafford, Thomas W, Jr12; Rasmussen, Simon1; Moltke, Ida7; Albrechtsen, Anders7; Doyle, Shane M27; Poznik, G David28; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg1; Yadav, Rachita1; Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo7; White, Samuel Stockton, 5th29; Allentoft, Morten Erik16; Cornejo, Omar E.17; Tambets, Kristiina30; Eriksson, Anders31; Heintzman, Peter D.32; Karmin, Monika30; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand16; Meltzer, David J.33; Pierre, Tracey Lynn16; Stenderup, Jesper16; Saag, Lauri30; Warmuth, Vera M31; Lopes, Margarida C22; Malhi, Ripan S.34; Brunak, Søren1; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas1; Barnes, Ian32; Collins, Matthew35; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre16; Balloux, Francois36; Manica, Andrea31; Gupta, Ramneek1; Metspalu, Mait30; Bustamante, Carlos D28; Jakobsson, Mattias10; Nielsen, Rasmus37; Willerslev, Eske7
1 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark2 Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark3 Behavioral Phenomics, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark4 Metagenomics, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark5 Functional Human Variation, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark6 Integrative Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark7 University of Copenhagen8 Anzick Family9 Texas A&M University10 Uppsala University11 University of California12 Aarhus University13 Montana State University14 Stanford University15 University of Montana16 Natural History Museum of Denmark17 Washington State University18 University of Tartu19 University of Cambridge20 University of London21 Southern Methodist University22 University College London23 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign24 University of York25 Imperial College London26 University of California at Berkeley27 Montana State University28 Stanford University29 University of Montana30 University of Tartu31 University of Cambridge32 University of London33 Southern Methodist University34 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign35 University of York36 Imperial College London37 University of California at Berkeley
Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.
Nature, 2014, Vol 506, Issue 7487, p. 225-229
Archaeology; Asia; Bone and Bones; Burial; Chromosomes, Human, Y; DNA, Mitochondrial; Emigration and Immigration; Europe; Gene Flow; Genome, Human; Haplotypes; History, Ancient; Humans; Indians, North American; Infant; Male; Models, Genetic; Molecular Sequence Data; Montana; Phylogeny; Population Dynamics; Radiometric Dating