Rasmussen, Morten7; Anzick, Sarah L.8; Waters, Michael R9; Skoglund, Pontus10; DeGiorgio, Michael11; Stafford, Thomas W, Jr12; Rasmussen, Simon13; Moltke, Ida7; Albrechtsen, Anders7; Doyle, Shane M28; Poznik, G David29; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg13; Yadav, Rachita1; Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo7; White, Samuel Stockton, 5th30; Allentoft, Morten Erik17; Cornejo, Omar E.18; Tambets, Kristiina31; Eriksson, Anders32; Heintzman, Peter D.33; Karmin, Monika31; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand17; Meltzer, David J.34; Pierre, Tracey Lynn17; Stenderup, Jesper17; Saag, Lauri31; Warmuth, Vera M32; Lopes, Margarida C23; Malhi, Ripan S.35; Brunak, Søren13; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas13; Barnes, Ian33; Collins, Matthew36; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre17; Balloux, Francois37; Manica, Andrea32; Gupta, Ramneek13; Metspalu, Mait31; Bustamante, Carlos D29; Jakobsson, Mattias10; Nielsen, Rasmus38; Willerslev, Eske7
1 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark2 Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark3 Behavioral Phenomics, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark4 Metagenomics, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark5 Functional Human Variation, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark6 Integrative Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark7 University of Copenhagen8 Anzick Family9 Texas A&M University10 Uppsala University11 University of California12 Aarhus University13 Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark14 Montana State University15 Stanford University16 University of Montana17 Natural History Museum of Denmark18 Washington State University19 University of Tartu20 University of Cambridge21 University of London22 Southern Methodist University23 University College London24 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign25 University of York26 Imperial College London27 University of California at Berkeley28 Montana State University29 Stanford University30 University of Montana31 University of Tartu32 University of Cambridge33 University of London34 Southern Methodist University35 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign36 University of York37 Imperial College London38 University of California at Berkeley
Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.