1 Danish Shellfish Centre, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark2 National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark3 unknown4 Fisheries Research Services5 Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research6 Institute of Marine Research7 French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea8 Marine Research Institute9 Marine Institute10 Centre for Marine Research11 Rutgers Cooperative Extension12 Wageningen IMARES13 Fisheries Research Services14 Institute of Marine Research
Intentional transfers of numerous bivalve species have had a long tradition and are commonly conducted along the European Atlantic coast. However numerous studies have concluded that intentional transfer of species for aquaculture purposes is one of the most principal vectors for the introduction of exotic species around the world. Threats due to the transfer and introduction of species have been identified and a range of global and regional agreements, guidelines, standards and statutes to minimize effects have been established. Yet whether such regulations can protect and conserve the marine environment and address economic considerations remains unanswered. This study provides the first overview of bivalve transfer activities for aquaculture purposes along the European Atlantic coast. Existing international and EU legislation is described, and potential weaknesses in the existing legislative frameworks are discussed. Recommendations for the development of integrated risk assessment methods are given. These may help to minimize the intrinsic threats of transfer activities in marine environments. The resulting impacts and effects of transfer activities of bivalves for aquaculture purpose are addressed in detail in a companion paper.
Ocean and Coastal Management, 2014, Vol 89, p. 127-138