From January 1st 2011 through June 30th 2011, 116 nonreplicate, noncystic fibrosis-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with reduced carbapenem susceptibility were collected from 12 out of 13 Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The presence of acquired β-lactamases was assessed with combination tablet-diffusion methodology and polymerase chain reaction. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, an efflux pump inhibitor assay, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Isolates producing acquired β-lactamases were further investigated by serotyping and multi locus sequence typing. Eight isolates produced the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) VIM-2, and one isolate produced OXA-10 and VEB-1-like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Phenotypic indications of derepressed AmpC and efflux pump were seen in 56 and 43 isolates, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that mutational factors related to permeability-often combined with derepressed, chromosomal AmpC-is the main factor behind carbapenem nonsusceptibility in Danish P. aeruginosa isolates. The ESBL producer and all the VIM producers belonged to international clones. PFGE revealed that most of the isolates were unrelated, but clonal spread was seen; the 116 isolates distributed in 97 PFGE types, with the largest cluster consisting of 4 isolates (including three isolates from the same hospital with 100% similarity). Thirty-two isolates were pair-wise related, while the remaining isolates were clonally unrelated, as were all nine ESBL/MBL producers.
Microbial Drug Resistance, 2014, Vol 20, Issue 1, p. 22-29