Transport policy often aims to change the modal split and/or reduce driving by means of both structural and psychological interventions, often referred to as ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ policy, respectively. We investigate how socio-structural contexts and psychological motivators interact in determining travel choices in New England (USA). In total, 1340 New England residents responded to a mail survey, which asked them about their use of alternative travel modes, their attempts to drive less, and a range of potential psychological and structural antecedents. Responses were analyzed with structural equation modeling. We find an individual’s context and their problem awareness, attitudes, and norms are important components of travel decisions. This suggests combining ‘‘hard’’ and ‘‘soft’’ policy interventions for maximum impact. We also find significant differences across the New England states, indicating travel interventions should consider contextual differences across regions. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.
Transportation Research. Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2014, Vol 23, Issue March
Travel mode; Theory of planned behavior; Behavioral antecedents; Structural equation modeling; Hard and soft policy interventions