1 Biomolecular Sciences, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Albeda Research Aps3 Biomolecular Sciences, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
Accumulating evidence suggest that the pyridine nucleotide NAD has far wider biological functions than its classical role in energy metabolism. NAD is used by hundreds of enzymes that catalyse substrate oxidation and as such it plays a key role in various biological processes such as aging, cell death and oxidative stress. It has been suggested that changes in the ratio of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] reflects metabolic alterations leading to, or correlating with, pathological states. We have designed an isotopically labelled metabolic bioprobe of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] by combining a magnetic enhancement technique (hyperpolarization) with cellular glycolytic activity. The bioprobe reports free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios based on dynamically measured in-cell [pyruvate]/ [lactate] ratios. We demonstrate its utility in breast and prostate cancer cells. The free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio determined in prostate cancer cells was 4 times higher than in breast cancer cells. This higher ratio reflects a distinct metabolic phenotype of prostate cancer cells consistent with previously reported alterations in the energy metabolism of these cells. As a reporter on free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, the bioprobe will enable better understanding of the origin of diverse pathological states of the cell as well as monitor cellular consequences of diseases and/or treatments.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2014, Vol 289, Issue 4, p. 2344-2352