Based on experimental investigations, the literature proposes different methods for modeling the behavior and capacity of foundations subjected to combined loading. Generally, two methods are used to predict the behavior of foundations: traditional approaches and hardening plasticity solutions. The first method is only capable of determining the capacity of the foundations and not the prepeak behavior. Thus, a new strain-hardening criterion is developed by calibrating failure criteria by employing data from small-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to static loads. The shape of the yield, potential, and failure surfaces are found to be dependent on the embedment ratio (i.e., ratio of skirt length to the diameter) and load path. For the models tested, associated flow is observed to be plausible in the radial planes, whereas nonassociated flow is observed in the planes along the V-axis.
Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 2014, Vol 140, Issue 2, p. 361-373