Li, Bin6; Petersen, Nickolaj J.7; Payán, María D Ramos4; Hansen, Steen Honoré8; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig7
1 Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Pharmaceutical Design and Drug Delivery, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 Drug Research Academy A, Drug Research Academy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Københavns Universitet4 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012, Seville, Spain.5 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Københavns Universitet6 Drug Research Academy A, Drug Research Academy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Københavns Universitet7 Analytical Biosciences, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet8 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
An automated liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) device in a chip format has been developed and coupled directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 10-port 2-position switching valve was used to hyphenate the LPME-chip with the HPLC autosampler, and to collect the extracted analytes, which then were delivered to the HPLC column. The LPME-chip-HPLC system was completely automated and controlled by the software of the HPLC instrument. The performance of this system was demonstrated with five alkaloids i.e. morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine as model analytes. The composition of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) and carrier was optimized in order to achieve reasonable extraction performance of all the five alkaloids. With 1-octanol as SLM solvent and with 25mM sodium octanoate as anionic carrier, extraction recoveries for the different opium alkaloids ranged between 17% and 45%. The extraction provided high selectivity, and no interfering peaks in the chromatograms were observed when applied to human urine samples spiked with alkaloids. The detection limits using UV-detection were in the range of 1-21ng/mL for the five opium alkaloids presented in water samples. The repeatability was within 5.0-10.8% (RSD). The membrane liquid in the LPME-chip was regenerated automatically between every third injection. With this procedure the liquid membrane in the LPME-chip was stable in 3-7 days depending on the complexity of sample solutions with continuous operation. With this LPME-chip-HPLC system, series of samples were automatically injected, extracted, separated, and detected without any operator interaction.