1 Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark2 Nano Bio Integrated Systems, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark3 Polymer Microsystems for Medical Diagnostics, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark4 Nanoprobes, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark5 Technical University of Denmark6 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark7 Center for Intelligent Drug Delivery and Sensing Using Microcontainers and Nanomechanics, Center, Technical University of Denmark8 Copenhagen Center for Health Technology, Center, Technical University of Denmark
Cytogenetic analysis focuses on studying the cell structure, mainly in respect to chromosome content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders, but are also associated with heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are rearrangements between two chromosome arms that results in two derivative chromosomes having a mixed DNA sequence. The current detection method is a Fluorescent In situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the DNA sequences of two chromosomes involved in the translocation (Kwasny et al., 2012). We have developed a new double hybridization assay that allows for sorting of the DNA chromosomal fragments into separate compartment, moreover allowing for detection of the translocation. To detect the translocation it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The first example of the translocation detection was presented on lab-on-a-disc using fluorescently labeled DNA fragments, representing the derivative chromosome (Brøgger et al., 2012). To allow for cheaper detection a label-free approach has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a sensing method. We present here our recent results in regards to DNA sensing on metallic and conductive polymer electrodes for translocation detection. Our sensors are inexpensive and can be successfully applied in cytogenetic analysis as a replacement of standard techniques.