1 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark2 Research Group for Genomic Epidemiology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark3 Institut Pasteur4 Universite Paris-Est5 Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University6 Federal Institute for Risk Assessment7 National Veterinary Research Institute8 Robert Koch Institute9 University of Sydney10 Institut Pasteur du Maroc11 University of Ibadan12 FINALAB13 University of Copenhagen14 French National Centre for Scientific Research15 Universite Paris-Est16 Federal Institute for Risk Assessment17 National Veterinary Research Institute18 University of Sydney19 Institut Pasteur du Maroc20 University of Ibadan
While the spread of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin across Africa and the Middle-East has been described recently, the presence of this strain in humans, food, various animal species (livestock, pets, and wildlife) and in environment is suspected in other countries of different continents. Here, we report results of an in-depth molecular epidemiological study on a global human and non-human collection of S. Kentucky (n = 70). We performed XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, assessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions, detected β-lactam resistance mechanisms, and screened the presence of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). In this study, we highlight the rapid and extensive worldwide dissemination of the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198-X1-SGI1 strain since the mid-2000s in an increasingly large number of contaminated sources, including the environment. This strain has accumulated an increasing number of chromosomal and plasmid resistance determinants and has been identified in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Europe since 2010. The second substitution at position 87 in GyrA (replacing the amino acid Asp) appeared helpful for epidemiological studies to track the origin of contamination. This global study provides evidence leading to the conclusion that high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. Kentucky is a simple microbiological trait that facilitates the identification of the epidemic clone of interest, ST198-X1-SGI1. Taking this into account is essential in order to detect and monitor it easily and to take rapid measures in livestock to ensure control of this infection.
Frontiers in Microbiology, 2013, Vol 4
S. Kentucky; ST198; SGI1; QRDR; MDR Salmonella Dissemination; Poultry