1 Section of Cellular and Metabolic Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Diabetes Research Center, Brussels Free University (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, B1090 Brussel, Belgium Department of Clinical Chemistry and Radioimmunology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, B1090 Brussels, Belgium Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.3 unknown4 Section of Cellular and Metabolic Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
Neonatal β cells are considered developmentally immature and hence less glucose responsive. To study the acquisition of mature glucose responsiveness, we compared glucose-regulated redox state, insulin synthesis, and secretion of β cells purified from neonatal or 10-week-old rats with their transcriptomes and proteomes measured by oligonucleotide and LC-MS/MS profiling. Lower glucose responsiveness of neonatal β cells was explained by two distinct properties: higher activity at low glucose and lower activity at high glucose. Basal hyperactivity was associated with higher NAD(P)H, a higher fraction of neonatal β cells actively incorporating (3)H-tyrosine, and persistently increased insulin secretion below 5 mM glucose. Neonatal β cells lacked the steep glucose-responsive NAD(P)H rise between 5 and 10 mM glucose characteristic for adult β cells and accumulated less NAD(P)H at high glucose. They had twofold lower expression of malate/aspartate-NADH shuttle and most glycolytic enzymes. Genome-wide profiling situated neonatal β cells at a developmental crossroad: they showed advanced endocrine differentiation when specifically analyzed for their mRNA/protein level of classical neuroendocrine markers. On the other hand, discrete neonatal β cell subpopulations still expressed mRNAs/proteins typical for developing/proliferating tissues. One example, delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) was used to investigate whether neonatal β cells with basal hyperactivity corresponded to a more immature subset with high DLK1, but no association was found. In conclusion, the current study supports the importance of glycolytic NADH-shuttling in stimulus function coupling, presents basal hyperactivity as novel property of neonatal β cells, and provides potential markers to recognize intercellular developmental differences in the endocrine pancreas.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, 2014, Vol 52, Issue 1, p. 11-28