1 Functional Genomics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Columbia University Medical Center3 Masaryk University4 Saint Anne’s University Hospital5 New York University School of Medicine6 Functional Genomics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
Rad54 is an ATP-driven translocase involved in the genome maintenance pathway of homologous recombination (HR). Although its activity has been implicated in several steps of HR, its exact role(s) at each step are still not fully understood. We have identified a new interaction between Rad54 and the replicative DNA clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). This interaction was only mildly weakened by the mutation of two key hydrophobic residues in the highly-conserved PCNA interaction motif (PIP-box) of Rad54 (Rad54-AA). Intriguingly, the rad54-AA mutant cells displayed sensitivity to DNA damage and showed HR defects similar to the null mutant, despite retaining its ability to interact with HR proteins and to be recruited to HR foci in vivo. We therefore surmised that the PCNA interaction might be impaired in vivo and was unable to promote repair synthesis during HR. Indeed, the Rad54-AA mutant was defective in primer extension at the MAT locus as well as in vitro, but additional biochemical analysis revealed that this mutant also had diminished ATPase activity and an inability to promote D-loop formation. Further mutational analysis of the putative PIP-box uncovered that other phenotypically relevant mutants in this domain also resulted in a loss of ATPase activity. Therefore, we have found that although Rad54 interacts with PCNA, the PIP-box motif likely plays only a minor role in stabilizing the PCNA interaction, and rather, this conserved domain is probably an extension of the ATPase domain III.
Plos One, 2013, Vol 8, Issue 12
Adenosine Triphosphatases; Amino Acid Motifs; Amino Acid Sequence; Chromosome Pairing; Conserved Sequence; DNA; DNA Damage; DNA Helicases; DNA Mutational Analysis; DNA Primers; DNA Repair; DNA Repair Enzymes; Genomic Instability; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutant Proteins; Mutation; Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; Protein Binding; Protein Multimerization; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Recombination, Genetic; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; Structure-Activity Relationship