Damm, Peter3; Mersebach, Henriette2; Råstam, Jacob2; Kaaja, Risto2; Hod, Moshe2; McCance, David R2; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R3
1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
OBJECTIVE: To analyse data from a randomised, controlled study of prandial insulin aspart versus human insulin, both with NPH insulin, in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes for potential factors predicting poor pregnancy outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN/METHOD: Post hoc analysis including 91 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy with known outcome in early pregnancy and 259 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy/during pregnancy of <10 weeks' gestation with known late-pregnancy outcomes. Poor early-pregnancy outcomes included fetal loss <22 gestational weeks and/or congenital malformation (n=18). Poor late-pregnancy outcomes included: composite endpoint including pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and perinatal death (n=78); preterm delivery (n=63); and excessive fetal growth (n=88). RESULTS: 18 patients experienced a malformed/lost fetus in early pregnancy - none preceded by severe hypoglycaemia. Albuminuria in early pregnancy was a significant predictor of poor late-pregnancy outcome (composite endpoint; p=0.012). In the third trimester, elevated HbA1c, ≥ 1 plasma glucose (PG) measurement >11 mmol/L (198 mg/dL) and %PG values outside 3.9-7.0 mmol/L (70-126 mg/dL) were significant predictors of poor late-pregnancy outcomes (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated HbA1c, high glucose spikes and out-of-range %PG in the third trimester, and albuminuria in early pregnancy, are associated with poor late-pregnancy outcomes.
Journal of Maternal - Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 2014, Vol 27, Issue 2, p. 149-154