Soulimane, Soraya2; Simon, Dominique3; Herman, William H3; Lange, Celine3; Lee, Crystal M Y3; Colagiuri, Stephen3; Shaw, Jonathan E3; Zimmet, Paul Z3; Magliano, Dianna3; Ferreira, Sandra R G3; Dong, Yanghu3; Zhang, Lei3; Jorgensen, Torben8; Tuomilehto, Jaakko3; Mohan, Viswanathan3; Christensen, Dirk Lund9; Kaduka, Lydia3; Dekker, Jacqueline M3; Nijpels, Giel3; Stehouwer, Coen D A3; Lantieri, Olivier3; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y3; Leonetti, Donna L3; McNeely, Marguerite J3; Borch-Johnsen, Knut10; Boyko, Edward J3; Vistisen, Dorte11; Balkau, Beverley3
1 Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 CESP U1018, Inserm, 16 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94807, Villejuif cedex, France.3 unknown4 Centre for African Studies - Technical area, Faculty of Theology, Københavns Universitet5 Section of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet6 BSc + MSc programme, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet7 Undervisning - FSV, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet8 Centre for African Studies - Technical area, Faculty of Theology, Københavns Universitet9 Section of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet10 BSc + MSc programme, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet11 Undervisning - FSV, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. METHODS: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random factor. The I (2) statistic was used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: HbA1c was 0.10% (95% CI 0.08, 0.12) (1.1 mmol/mol [0.9, 1.3]) higher in current smokers and 0.03% (0.01, 0.05) (0.3 mmol/mol [0.1, 0.5]) higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (-0.004 mmol/l [-0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ex-smokers (0.12 mmol/l [0.09, 0.14]). In comparison with never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower (-0.44 mmol/l [-0.52, -0.37]) in current smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers (0.02 mmol/l [-0.06, 0.09]). There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I (2) always above 50%; I (2) was little changed after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI. In this study population, current smokers had a prevalence of diabetes that was 1.30% higher as screened by HbA1c and 0.52% lower as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes.
Diabetologia, 2014, Vol 57, Issue 1, p. 30-9
Blood Glucose; Fasting; Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; Humans; Smoking