Hadorn, M.2; Boenzli, E.3; Sørensen, Kristian T.2; De Lucrezia, Davide2; Hanczyc, M. M.3; Yomo, T.2
1 Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, SDU2 unknown3 Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, SDU
The technological aspects of artificial vesicles as prominent cell mimics are evolving toward higher-order assemblies of functional vesicles with tissuelike architectures. Here, we demonstrate the spatially controlled DNA-directed bottom-up synthesis of complex microassemblies and macroassemblies of giant unilamellar vesicles functionalized with a basic cellular machinery to express green fluorescent protein and specified neighbor-to-neighbor interactions. We show both that the local and programmable DNA pairing rules on the nanoscale are able to direct the microscale vesicles into macroscale soft matter assemblies and that the highly sensitive gene-expression machinery remains intact and active during multiple experimental steps. An in silico model recapitulates the experiments performed in vitro and covers additional experimental setups highlighting the parameters that control the DNA-directed bottom-up synthesis of higher-order self-assembled structures. The controlled assembly of a functional vesicle matrix may be useful not only as simplified natural tissue mimics but also as artificial scaffolds that could interact and support living cells.