BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several studies emphasise that arabinoxylan and β-glucan have more beneficial effects on glucose metabolism than low-dietary fibre (DF) meals. Less attention has been paid to the effects of concentrated DF compared with whole grain. We compared the effects of DF and whole grain on glucose, hormone responses and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over intervention study. The test breads provided 50 g of digestible carbohydrate: wheat bread with concentrated arabinoxylan (AX) or β-glucan (BG), rye bread with kernels (RK) and wheat bread (WB) as control. Blood samples were drawn for 270 min to determine glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and ghrelin. Appetite score was addressed every 30 min. Ad libitum energy intake (EI) was measured 270 min after test meals. RESULTS: Compared with WB, BG and RK induced lower initial glycaemic responses (P<0.001), whereas AX only reduced the glucose peak value (P<0.001). RK reduced insulin (P<0.001) and GIP responses (P<0.001) compared with the other breads. BG lowered insulin responses more than AX (P<0.001). AX, BG and RK increased satiety feeling (P<0.001) more than WB, but did not differ significantly in terms of subsequent EI (P=0.089). CONCLUSION: BG and RK had beneficial impact on the glucose response, whereas AX had only effect on the postprandial glucose peak. The impact of the AX bread was influenced by higher protein content. Whether the metabolic effects of the breads are still present to mixed meals remains to be tested.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014, Vol 68, Issue 1, p. 84-90