Morawska, L.4; Afshari, Alireza2; N. Bae, G.5; Buonanno, G.4; Y. H. Chao, C.6; Hänninen, O.7; Hoffmann, W.8; Isaxon, C.9; J. Jayaratne, E.4; Pasanen, P.10; Salthammer, T.4; Waring, M.11; Wierzbicka, A.9
1 Energy and environment (EE), The Faculty of Engineering and Science (ENG), Aalborg University, VBN2 Danish Building Research Institute, The Faculty of Engineering and Science (ENG), Aalborg University, VBN3 The Faculty of Engineering and Science (ENG), Aalborg University, VBN4 International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology5 Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology6 Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong7 epartment of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare8 Department of Materials Research and Physics, University of Salzburg9 Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University10 Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland11 Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University
from personal exposure to risk assessment
Motivated by growing considerations of the scale, severity, and risks associated with human exposure to indoor particulate matter, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) identify state-of-the-art experimental techniques used for personal exposure assessment; (ii) compare exposure levels reported for domestic/school settings in different countries (excluding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter from biomass cooking in developing countries); (iii) assess the contribution of outdoor background vs indoor sources to personal exposure; and (iv) examine scientific understanding of the risks posed by personal exposure to indoor aerosols. Limited studies assessing integrated daily residential exposure to just one particle size fraction, ultrafine particles, show that the contribution of indoor sources ranged from 19% to 76%. This indicates a strong dependence on resident activities, source events and site specificity, and highlights the importance of indoor sources for total personal exposure. Further, it was assessed that 10–30% of the total burden of disease from particulate matter exposure was due to indoor-generated particles, signifying that indoor environments are likely to be a dominant environmental factor affecting human health. However, due to challenges associated with conducting epidemiological assessments, the role of indoor-generated particles has not been fully acknowledged, and improved exposure/risk assessment methods are still needed, together with a serious focus on exposure control.