1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
a prospective study
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac cachexia (CC) is associated with changes in body composition. Lipolysis and increased energy expenditure caused by A- and B natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been suggested to play a role in CC. We tested the hypothesis that neurohormones and adipokines are associated with body composition in CC and that a progressive loss of fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) takes place. METHODS: Body composition with regard to FFM, FM, and body fat distribution was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 19 non-diabetic patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and CC and 38 controls (non-cachectic CHF and individuals with prior myocardial infarction-both n = 19) who were followed for 12 months. Biomarkers of neurohormonal stimulation, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction were measured. RESULTS: N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), midregional proANP (MR-proANP), and total adiponectin were elevated in CHF (p<0.001) and correlated inversely to BMI and FM. An inverse correlation was observed between pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and FFM. During follow up body weight was unaltered in all groups even though FM increased by 1.35 kg (p<0.05) and FFM decreased by 0.5 kg (p<0.05) in CC patients. The latter correlated inversely to baseline NT-proBNP, MR-proANP, and MR-proADM (p<0.05). No correlation to changes in FM was found. CONCLUSIONS: FM was associated with plasma NPs and total adiponectin at baseline; whereas changes in FM and FFM did not correlate to changes in NPs or adiponectin during follow up. Prospectively, FFM decreased but FM increased, despite stable body weight in CC.