1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
A Paired-Pulse TMS Study
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human primary motor hand area (M1-HAND) can produce multiple descending volleys in fast-conducting corticospinal neurons, especially so-called indirect waves (I-waves) resulting from trans-synaptic excitation. Facilitatory interaction between these I-waves can be studied non-invasively using a paired-pulse paradigm referred to as short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF). OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We examined whether SICF depends on waveform and current direction of the TMS pulses. METHODS: In young healthy volunteers, we applied single- and paired-pulse TMS to M1-HAND. We probed SICF by pairs of monophasic or half-sine pulses at suprathreshold stimulation intensity and inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) between 1.0 and 5.0 ms. For monophasic paired-pulse stimulation, both pulses had either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) current direction (AP-AP or PA-PA), whereas current direction was reversed between first and second pulse for half-sine paired-pulse stimulation (PA-AP and AP-PA). RESULTS: Monophasic AP-AP stimulation resulted in stronger early SICF at 1.4 ms relative to late SICF at 2.8 and 4.4 ms, whereas monophasic PA-PA stimulation produced SICF of comparable size at all three peaks. With half-sine stimulation the third SICF peak was reduced for PA-AP current orientation compared with AP-PA. CONCLUSION: SICF elicited using monophasic as well as half-sine pulses is affected by current direction at clearly suprathreshold intensities. The impact of current orientation is stronger for monophasic compared with half-sine pulses. The direction-specific effect of paired-pulse TMS on the strength of early versus late SICF shows that different cortical circuits mediate early and late SICF.
Brain Stimulation, 2014, Vol 7, Issue 1, p. 49-58
Adult; Evoked Potentials, Motor; Female; Humans; Male; Motor Cortex; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Young Adult