BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are accompanied by inflammation and malnutrition. Both conditions can have negative effects on bone metabolism and promote fractures. We evaluated the risk of fractures among patients with CP or cirrhosis and determined the effect of fat malabsorption on fracture risk among patients with CP. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Danish National Patient Register to identify patients diagnosed with CP or cirrhosis. We analyzed data collected from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2010, on 20,769 patients (35.5% women with cirrhosis and 11,972 patients (33.5% women) with CP. Each patient was compared with 10 age- and sex-matched controls. We also assessed the risk of fractures among patients with CP who received pancreatic enzyme substitution (PES) for fat malabsorption. RESULTS: During the study period, bone fractures occurred in 3954 patients with cirrhosis and 2594 patients with CP. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for any fracture was 2.4 in patients with cirrhosis (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.5) and 1.7 in patients with CP (95% CI, 1.6-1.8). The relative risk of low-trauma fractures was highest among individuals younger than 50 years old. Alcohol as an etiology was associated with an increased risk of fracture compared with patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis (HR, 2.4 vs 1.5; P < .0001) and CP (HR, 2.0 vs 1.5; P < .0001). Patients with CP receiving PES for fat malabsorption had a lower risk of fractures than other CP patients (HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9). However, increasing the duration of treatment with PES was associated with an increased risk of fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Patients, especially younger patients, with cirrhosis or CP have an increased risk of fractures of all types.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2014, Vol 12, Issue 2, p. 320-326