Transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters are going to be more widely adopted in order to achieve high efficiency, as the penetration level of PV systems is continuously booming. However, problems may arise in highly PV-integrated distribution systems. For example, a sudden stoppage of all PV systems due to anti-islanding protection may trigger grid disturbances. Thus, standards featuring with ancillary services for the next generation PV systems are under a revision in some countries. The future PV systems have to provide a full range of services as what the conventional power plants do, e.g. Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) under grid faults and grid support service. In order to map future challenges, the LVRT capability of three mainstream single-phase transformerless PV inverters under grid faults are explored in this paper. Control strategies with reactive power injections are also discussed. The selected inverters are the full-bridge inverter with bipolar modulation, full-bridge inverter with DC bypass and the Highly Efficient and Reliable Inverter Concept (HERIC). A 1 kW single-phase grid-connected PV system is analyzed to verify the discussions. The tests confirmed that, although the HERIC inverter is the best candidate in terms of efficiency, it is not very feasible in case of a voltage sag. The other topologies are capable of providing reactive current during LVRT. A benchmarking of those inverters is also provided, which offers the possibility to select appropriate devices and to further optimize the system.
Proceedings of the Ieee Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Ecce 2013, 2013, p. 4762-4769
5th IEEE Energy Conversion Congress & Expo, ECCE 2013