Lixisenatide (trade name Lyxumia®), a short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, was approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes by the European Medicines Agency in early 2013. In preclinical investigations, acceptable toxicity and carcinogenicity profiles were demonstrated, as well as pancreatic beta cell-preserving actions and favorable effects on glycemic control. Following subcutaneous administration in humans, lixisenatide displays linear pharmacokinetics and an absorption-dependent elimination half-life of 2-3 hours. In clinical trials of up to 1 year duration in patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with lixisenatide alone and in combination with insulin and various oral antidiabetics conferred significant reductions in HbA1c, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose. In direct comparison with the other GLP-1R agonists on the market (exenatide and liraglutide), lixisenatide appears to be less efficient, or at best non-inferior in terms of reducing HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and body weight. Nevertheless, lixisenatide confers fewer adverse events than the other currently marketed GLP-1R agonists, while exhibiting a clinically valuable effect on postprandial hyperglycemia.
Drugs of Today, 2013, Vol 49, Issue 9, p. 537-53
Animals; Blood Glucose; Body Weight; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical; Drug Interactions; Half-Life; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Peptides; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review