In this paper we report the Sr isotope signatures, and Sr, Al and Na concentrations of 30 surface waters (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) and 19 soil sample extracts from the island of Bornholm (Denmark) and present a categorized 87Sr/86Sr value distribution map that may serve as a base for provenance studies, including archaeological migration and authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097–0.7281 (average 0.7175 ± 0.0049; 1σ), whereas 0.1 M HNO3, 0.05 M HNO3, and 0.01 M CaCl2 soil extracts range from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7095–0.7197 and define somewhat lower but statistically indistinguishable averages of 0.7125 ± 0.003 (1s). These compositions are lower than the values expected from the Precambrian granitoid basement (87Sr/86Sr = 0.758–0.944), and from the overlying, mainly clastic Paleozoic sediments. Combined Sr isotope composition vs. Sr, Na and Al concentration relationships of soil extracts imply that lowering of the isotopic composition of leachable Sr on Bornholm results as a consequence of significant admixture to this fraction of Sr deposited as marine salts (aerosols), and that rainwater only has a minor influence on the Sr budget of the surface waters. Positively correlated Al/Na and [1/Sr] vs. 87Sr/86Sr relationships in soil extracts and surface waters indicate that the surface run-off on Bornholm is characterized by two predominant sources, namely marine aerosols (sea salts) with high Sr and low 87Sr/86Sr values, and a source with lower [Sr] delivering radiogenic Sr to the surface waters, which we equate with Sr leached from the products of mineral weathering (soils).