AIMS: To investigate the prognostic value of expression levels of the genes STEAP1 and STEAP2, and of STEAP1 protein, in prostate carcinomas (PCa). METHODS AND RESULTS: STEAP1 and STEAP2 transcript levels were evaluated by RT-qPCR in samples from 35 PCa, 24 adjacent non-neoplastic prostate (AdjP) tissues, five cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and two histologically normal prostates (N). STEAP1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in samples from 198 PCa, 76 AdjP, 22 BPH, and two N. The findings were compared with clinical and pathological parameters and patient outcome. STEAP1 and STEAP2 transcript analysis showed no differences between the groups tested. Although not significant, higher STEAP1 mRNA levels were detected in tumours with high Gleason scores and in patients who presented with biochemical recurrence (BCR). STEAP1 overexpression was detected in PCa, and was significantly associated with high-grade Gleason scores, seminal vesicle invasion, BCR, and worse outcome (metastasis or PCa-specific death). STEAP1 overexpression was significantly associated with shorter BCR-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that STEAP1 is an independent marker for BCR. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that STEAP1 is a biomarker of worse prognosis in PCa patients.