As increasing numbers of electric vehicles (EVs) enter into the society, the charging behavior of EVs has got lots of attention due to its economical difference within the electricity market. The charging cost for EVs generally differ from each other in choosing the charging time interval (hourly), since the hourly electricity prices are different in the market. In this paper, the problem is formulated into an optimal control one and solved by dynamic programming. Optimization aims to find the economically optimal charging solution for each vehicle. In this paper, a nonlinear battery model is characterized and presented, and a given future electricity prices is assumed and utilized. Simulation results indicate that daily charing cost is reduced by smart charing.
Neural Computing and Applications, 2013, Vol 23, Issue 7-8, p. 1865-1872
Optimal control; Dynamic programming; Nonlinear control; Electric vehicles