McCarthy, Donal P.2; Donald, Paul F.3; Scharlemann, Jörn P.W.4; Buchanan, Graeme M.3; Balmford, Andrew12; Green, Jonathan M. H.12; Bennun, Leon A.2; Burgess, Neil David13; Fishpool, Lincoln D.C.2; Garnett, Stephen T.7; Leonard, David L.8; Maloney, Richard F.9; Morling, Poul3; Schaefer, H. Martin14; Symes, Andy2; Wiedenfeld, David A.11; Butchart, Stuart H.M.2
1 Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 BirdLife International3 RSPB4 United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre5 University of Cambridge6 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet7 Charles Darwin University8 University of Hawai‘i at Manoa9 Department of Conservation10 University of Freiburg11 unknown12 University of Cambridge13 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet14 University of Freiburg
current spending and unmet needs
World governments have committed to halting human-induced extinctions and safeguarding important sites for biodiversity by 2020, but the financial costs of meeting these targets are largely unknown. We estimate the cost of reducing the extinction risk of all globally threatened bird species (by ≥1 International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List category) to be U.S. $0.875 to $1.23 billion annually over the next decade, of which 12% is currently funded. Incorporating threatened nonavian species increases this total to U.S. $3.41 to $4.76 billion annually. We estimate that protecting and effectively managing all terrestrial sites of global avian conservation significance (11,731 Important Bird Areas) would cost U.S. $65.1 billion annually. Adding sites for other taxa increases this to U.S. $76.1 billion annually. Meeting these targets will require conservation funding to increase by at least an order of magnitude.